Working with Numbers

Rust is a typed language, every variable must specify its type. The common number types are integers i32, i64, u32, u64, f64. The 32/64 is for the bit sized, i for signed integer, u for unsigned integer, and f for float.

Basic Math

fn main() {
    let x = 3;
    let y = 6;
    println!("{} + {} = {}", x, y, x + y);
    println!("{} * {} = {}", x, y, x * y);
}

Conversions

String to Integer

To convert a string to an integer in Rust, use parse() function. The parse function needs to know what type, which can be specified on the left-side of assignment like so:

let str = "123";
let num: i32 = str.parse().unwrap();

You can also specify the parse type inline, using ::<> syntax:

let str = "123";
let num = str.parse::<i32>().unwrap();

📌 Note: The use of .unwrap() is to “catch” the potential error and fail at this point.

String to a Float

To convert a string to a float in Rust, uses the same parse() function. You just specify f64 for the type.

let pi = "3.14159";
let num: f64 = pi.parse().unwrap()

Char to a Integer

To convert a single char to an integer in Rust, use .to_digit(RADIX). The radix value is used for conversion, 10 for decimal, 16 for hexadecimal.

let ch = '2';
let num = ch.to_digit(10).unwrap();
let ch = 'f';
let num = ch.to_digit(16).unwrap();
println!("{}", num);
// 15

Integer to String

To convert an integer to a string in Rust, use .to_string()

let num = 123;
let str = num.to_string();

Integer to Float

To convert an integer to a float in Rust, use as f64. This is a useful means to convert from various interchangeable types, you can use inline also.

let num = 13;
let flt = num as f64;
println!("{}", 1.2 * flt);
println!("{}", 1.2 * num as f64);